General Sentencing Principles
- Multiple or Continuing Offences
- Double Punishment
- Part IB: Sentencing of Federal Offenders
- Taking into Account Other Offences
- Victim of the Offence
- One Transaction Rule
- Section 16A
- Sentencing Factors
- Totality Principle
- Nature and Circumstances of the Offence
- Physical Condition
- Injury, Loss or Damage
- Consistency in Federal Sentencing
- Mental Condition
- The Impact of COVID-19 on Federal Sentencing
- Offender’s Family and Dependants
- Failure to Comply with Order or Obligation
- Course of Conduct
- Hardship to the Offender
- Contrition and Reparation
- Cultural Background
- Guilty Plea
- Adequacy of Punishment
Sentencing Options and Procedures
- Additional Sentencing Alternatives
- Breach of Conditional Release Bonds After Conviction
- Commencement of Federal Sentences
- Cumulative and Concurrent Sentences
- Conditional Release Orders After Conviction
- Hospital Orders
- Custodial Sentence
- Summary Disposition for Mental Illness
- Non Parole Period and Recognizance Release Orders
- Release on Parole or Licence
- Pre-Release Schemes and Leave of Absence
- Program Probation Orders
- Psychiatric Probation Orders
- Options without Proceeding to Conviction
- Table of Options
- Victim Impact Statements
- Sentencing Methodology
- Particular Sentencing Circumstances
- Ancillary Orders
Additional Sentencing Alternatives
The content on this page was last reviewed on 5 September 2016.
Recent cases alert
Miao v The Queen  NSWCCA 89 — sentencing judge not in error by not applying Fedele v The Queen  NSWCCA 286 or imposing ICO as custodial sentence properly reflected applicable sentencing factors and length of sentence product of degree of accumulation which ruled out availability of alternatives to custodial sentence.
*Guidance from these cases has not yet been incorporated into the commentary
Section 20AB makes available to courts sentencing federal offenders certain state and territory home sentencing options. These include options specifically listed in s 20AB(1AA), and similar sentences or orders to those listed.1
Other sentencing options which the court is permitted to impose on federal offenders are prescribed by regulation: see Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth) reg 6.
2. Options available under s 20AB
When sentencing a federal offender, a court of a participating state or territory may impose on the person a sentence which is available under the law of that state or territory provided that it is:
- a sentencing option listed under s 20AB(1AA); or
- a sentencing alternative prescribed under the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth) reg 6; or
- a sentencing option that is ‘similar to a sentence or order’ contained in s 20AB(1AA): see below 2.3
The options listed in s 20AB(1AA) are:
- an attendance centre order or attendance order;
- a community based order;
- a community correction order;
- a community custody order;
- a community service order;
- a community work order;
- a drug or alcohol treatment order or rehabilitation order;
- a good behaviour order;
- an intensive correction order;
- an intensive supervision order;
- periodic detention or a periodic detention order;
- weekend detention or a weekend detention order; and
- a work order.
2.1 Options not available under s 20AB
For a minimum non-parole offence mentioned in s 19AG, a court is not permitted to pass a sentence or make an order under s 20AB(1) that involves detention or imprisonment: s 20AB(6). The s 19AG(1) minimum non-parole offences are:
- Treachery: s 24AA of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth);
- International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices: Subdivision A of Division 72 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code;
- Terrorism: Part 5.3 or 5.5 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code;
- Treason, urging violence and advocating terrorism: Division 80 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code;
- Espionage and similar activities: Division 91 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code;
- Offences under Part 4 of the Charter of the United Nations Act 1945 (Cth);
- Offences under Part 5 of the Charter of the United Nations Act 1945 (Cth) to the extent that it relates to the Charter of the United Nations (Sanctions–Al-Qaida) Regulations 2008 (Cth).4
2.2 Ancillary Sentences available
- impose any fine or pecuniary penalty: s 20AB(4)(a); and/or
- make a reparation/restitution or compensation order: s 20AB(4)(b); and/or
- make any other order that the court is empowered to make: s 20AB(4)(c),
provided that, in respect of the offence committed, the court is empowered to make such an order.
When acting under s 20AB(4), care must be taken to ensure both consistency and proportionality in sentencing.
2.3 The meaning of a ‘similar sentence or order’
In DPP (Cth) v Costanzo  QSC 79,  the Court stated that whether a sentencing alternative is a similar sentence or order under the Act is:
[A] question of degree, which must be considered in the context of the legislation as a whole, and in particular Pt 1B, and in the light of the legislative purpose to extend sentencing options.
In that case, the Court found that there is a requirement of finality for orders made under s 20AB. The Court found that the interim or provisional nature of an Intensive Drug Rehabilitation Order (‘IDRO’) meant that an IDRO did not fall within the meaning of a ‘similar sentence or order’ in s 20AB. However, DPP (Cth) v Costanzo  QSC 79 was decided before amendments to s 20AB made in November 2015.5
These amendments made a ‘drug or alcohol treatment order or rehabilitation order’ available as a listed sentencing option under s 20AB. Whether an IDRO would now be considered a ‘similar sentence or order’ is untested.
3. Extent of application of state and territory laws
3.1 Inconsistency with federal legislation
Under s 20AB(3), where a sentence or order is made under s 20AB(1), the state or territory laws with regard to that sentencing option apply, so far as they are capable of application and are not inconsistent with the laws of the Commonwealth.
For example, under Victorian law, a Community Correction Order can be imposed following a finding of guilt only, without a conviction being recorded against the offender.6
However, under the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) conditional release is the only option available to the court, other than outright dismissal of the charges, where a conviction is not recorded: see Options Without Proceeding to Conviction.7
3.2 The Effect of s 20AB(1A)
Section 20AB(1A) provides that a court imposing a sentence or order under s 20AB(1) is not required to apply state and territory laws that require the making of another order before such a sentence can be imposed.
For example, in New South Wales, prior to amendments made to the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) on 1 October 2010, a court could order that a sentence of imprisonment be served by way of periodic detention. In order to do so, the court had to first pass a sentence of imprisonment and then order that it be served by way of periodic detention. The operation of s 20AB(1A) of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) meant that when sentencing a federal offender, the court could directly impose periodic detention upon a federal offender.8
The Court explained in R v Togias  NSWCCA 363, :
[Section] 20AB(1A) of the Crimes Act (Cth) meant that the Court did not have to find first that three years was an appropriate sentence: it could consider all sentencing options, and if it considered three years periodic detention the best option, it could directly impose that sentence.
Note: periodic detention ceased to be an available sentencing option under NSW law on 1 October 2010.9
4. Options available in the states and territories
4.1 Intensive Correction Orders, Community Correction Orders and Intensive Supervision Orders
Intensive Correction Orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(ix). Intensive Correction Orders are available as sentencing options in Queensland,10New South Wales,11 and the Australian Capital Territory.12
The Queensland and New South Wales orders are specifically prescribed as options available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
Community Correction Orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(iii) of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth). Community Correction Orders are available as a sentencing option in Victoria13 and are specifically prescribed as an option available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
Intensive Supervision Orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(x) of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth). Intensive Supervision Orders are available in Western Australia14 and are specifically prescribed as an option available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
4.1.1 Principles relevant to imposing Community Correction Orders
184.108.40.206 CCO cannot be combined with term of imprisonment for single federal offence
This would be inconsistent with Part IB of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth), which provides that where a court decides to impose a term of imprisonment inclusive of conditional release in a form other than parole, it must be in the form of a recognizance release order.16
However, in Atanackovic v The Queen  VSCA 136, the Court found that where the offender is being sentenced for multiple offences, it is possible for a CCO to be imposed for one of the offences and for a term of imprisonment to be imposed for the other offence.17
220.127.116.11 Guideline judgment in Boulton v The Queen does not apply to federal offences
In Atanackovic v The Queen  VSCA 136, the Court held that the guideline judgment in Boulton v The Queen  VSCA 342 which provides guidance on the imposition of CCO’s for Victorian offences does not apply to the imposition of a CCO for federal offences. The Court stated at :
Boulton cannot be accommodated by s 16A of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) and does not satisfy the requirements of s 80 of the Judiciary Act. Accordingly, it does not apply to the sentencing of federal offenders by Victorian courts.
Rather, courts must be guided by the sentencing principles in Part IB of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) when imposing a CCO for a federal offence. The Court stated at :
Section 16A(1) of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) has been held to set out the primary duty of a sentencing court in sentencing a federal offender. In discharging that duty, the sentencing court must consider whether the sentence to be imposed ‘is of a severity appropriate in all the circumstances of the offence.’ That is a different question to the question posed by the guideline judgment, namely, whether, having regard to the availability of the CCO as a sentencing option, there is ‘any feature of the offence, or the offender, which requires the conclusion that imprisonment, with all its disadvantages, is the only option.’
18.104.22.168 Relevant principles for federal offences
A CCO may not be appropriate in cases of high objective seriousness and where deterrence and denunciation are paramount considerations.
For example, in DPP (Cth) v Garside  VSCA 74, the Court considered a Crown appeal against a CCO imposed for offences involving child exploitation. Redlich and Beach JJA, citing R v Porte  NSWCCA 174, – with approval, stated at :
The failure to impose an immediate and substantial period of imprisonment was not in conformity with the prevailing sentencing practice. Courts throughout Australia have emphasised the need for substantial penalties with general deterrence and denunciation being paramount considerations. When regard is had to the nature and circumstances of the offending, a CCO was not, in our opinion, a disposition that was reasonably open (footnotes omitted).
4.1.2 Principles relevant to imposing Intensive Correction Orders
In R v Pogson  NSWCCA 225, the Court considered the principles relevant to imposing ICO’s in New South Wales. McClellan CJ and Johnson J (Price, RA Hulme and Button JJ agreeing) stated at -:
There is nothing in s.7 of the Sentencing Procedure Act which confines the imposition of an ICO to persons who have an identified need for rehabilitation, or of whom it can be positively said there is a risk of reoffending. Although obviously more lenient than a sentence of full-time imprisonment, the conditions imposed by an ICO will be an imposition of varying degrees of significance to an offender depending on his or her personal circumstances.
It is apparent that the mandatory conditions may operate to impose significant restrictions on an offender’s freedom. And, of course, a breach of the conditions may result in his or her sentencing regime being altered, including being required to serve the balance of the sentence in full-time custody.
An assessment must be made of an offender for the purpose of determining whether an ICO is the appropriate sentence to be selected in the particular case. That process forms part of the sentencing discretion in the context of the particular case.
It should be kept in mind that an ICO is a substantial punishment to be utilised in an appropriate case: Whelan v The Queen  NSWCCA 147 at . However, as with all sentencing options which do not involve immediate incarceration, it may also reflect a significant degree of leniency: Whelan  NSWCCA 147 at .
However, as we have noted, the stringent conditions attached to an ICO ensure that an offender subject to such an order is not living a carefree existence amongst the community. An ICO deprives an offender of his or her liberty in a real and not merely fictional sense.
However, the principles in R v Pogson  NSWCCA 225 do not permit a court to pass an inappropriate sentence. In R v Cahill  NSWCCA 53, Johnson J (Ward JA and Garling J agreeing), in sentencing for offences against New South Wales law, stated at :
This Court has emphasised the significant degree of leniency involved in the use of an ICO as a sentence. Although statements made in R v Pogson (in the joint judgment of McClellan CJ at CL and myself) point to the breadth of the concept of rehabilitation, and the capacity of an ICO to operate as a form of punishment, it is important not to lose sight of the need for an appropriate and proportionate level of punishment, in the form of immediate incarceration, in cases of serious offending. The decision in R v Pogson should not be utilised to pass an entirely inappropriate sentence which sees an offender such as the Respondent, with his magnitude of offending, being dealt with by way of an ICO. Such an approach does not accord with the principle of reasonable proportionality between the offending conduct and sentence and the need for general deterrence with respect to sentencing substantial drug supply offenders (emphasis added).
For example, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal has indicated that an ICO is unlikely to be an appropriate sentence in cases involving child exploitation. In R v Porte  NSWCCA 174, Johnson J (Beech-Jones J and Leeming JA agreeing) noted at -:
This Court has emphasised the significant degree of leniency involved in the use of an ICO as a sentence. Although statements made in R v Pogson; R v Lapham; R v Martin  NSWCCA 225; 82 NSWLR 60 at 85-87 –  (in the joint judgment of McClellan CJ at CL and myself) point to the breadth to the concept of rehabilitation, and the capacity of an ICO to operate as a form of punishment, it is necessary not to lose sight of the need for an appropriate level of punishment, in the form of immediate incarceration, in cases of serious child pornography offences such as this.
The decision in R v Pogson; R v Lapham; R v Martin should not be utilised to pass an entirely inappropriate sentence, which sees an offender such as the Respondent with his magnitude of offending, being dealt with by way of an ICO.
To proceed by way of an ICO in this case meant that concepts of general deterrence and denunciation “slip through almost without trace”: D’Alessandro  VSCA 60; 26 VR 477 at 484 .
However, in Fedele v The Queen  NSWCCA 286, a case involving child exploitation, the Court found that the sentencing judge had erred in failing to consider whether an ICO was an appropriate sentencing disposition. The immediate custodial sentence imposed was replaced by an ICO, given the objective seriousness of the offences were low, the offender was aged between 19 and 22 at the time of offending and had strong prospects of rehabilitation.18
In consideration of the requirement to take various sentencing considerations into account in determining an appropriate federal sentence (see s 16A(2)), Hall J noted in R v Dalzell  NSWSC 454, :
I accept that, in many cases, [an ICO] would not be appropriate in respect of insider trading offences. However, as important as is the principle of general deterrence in sentencing for such offences, there is a statutory requirement for a full consideration of the nature and the circumstances of the offence: s.16A(2). It is to be borne in mind that a term of imprisonment rather than a bond served under an Intensive Correction Order is a significant sentence, in my view, more onerous than a suspended sentence.
The offender in R v Dalzell  NSWSC 454 had been convicted of one count of insider trading contrary to s 1043A of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth). Hall J imposed a sentence of imprisonment of two years to be served by way of an ICO.19
In R v Glynatsis  NSWCCA 131,  the Court held that the imposition of an ICO on an offender convicted of nine insider trading offences did not adequately meet the need for general deterrence.20
4.1.3 Principles relevant to imposing Intensive Supervision Orders
An ISO may not be appropriate in cases of high objective seriousness and where deterrence and denunciation are paramount considerations. For example, in R v Leask  WASCA 243, the sentencing judge imposed an ISO on the offender as a condition of recognizance pursuant to s 20(1) of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth).21
The Court stated that it would have imposed an immediate custodial sentence due to the ‘seriousness of the offending and the need for general deterrence’.22
However, the Court dismissed the Crown appeal against sentence, noting at :
[I]f I had sentenced the respondent at first instance I would probably have ordered him to serve some of the sentence in prison. His Honour’s decision to release the respondent immediately was a lenient, some would say a very lenient, disposition. However, I have not been persuaded that his Honour’s decision was erroneous, particularly having regard to the respondent’s age, immaturity, naivety and mental state at the time he committed the offences. These factors very much reduced the respondent’s appreciation of the inappropriateness of what he had done and diminished his culpability. His Honour’s order, which included supervision and community work, was carefully crafted to the respondent’s particular circumstances (emphasis added).
In Naysmith v The Queen  WASCA 32, the Court allowed an appeal against an immediate custodial sentence of 12 months imposed for offences involving child exploitation and imposed instead an Intensive Supervision Order. The Court noted at -:
[I]f it be the case that ordinarily or generally a term of immediate imprisonment is the appropriate penalty for an offence, the sentencing judge is not relieved of his or her obligation to assess whether, having regard to all relevant sentencing factors in the case under consideration, it is appropriate to impose a lesser sentence. The question for the sentencing judge is whether, having regard to all relevant sentencing factors, the case does not require the imposition of the generally appropriate type of sentence for the offence: Collins v The State of Western Australia  WASCA 108 .
The appellant’s intellectual disability is such as to require that little weight be given to general deterrence, particularly as his disability was accompanied by significant social and environmental deprivation. Against that background, it was also significant that at the time of sentencing the appellant was receiving, and would continue to receive, a high level of external support. The unusual circumstances of this case bring the appellant within the exceptional category in which a term of imprisonment was not an appropriate sentencing option.
…. In all of the circumstances, a 9-month intensive supervision order with program and supervision requirements was the appropriate sentencing option.
4.2 Drug or alcohol treatment orders
There are also specialist drug courts to which offenders can be referred prior to sentencing in some jurisdictions. For example, in Western Australia the Drug Court is open to some classes of federal offenders,25 and in South Australia federal offenders may be referred to the Treatment Intervention Court.26
Whether these orders could be imposed on federal offenders is untested.
4.3 Community service orders
In South Australia a court is empowered to order that an offender perform ‘community service’. However, the method through which a sentencing court imposes community service is under a suspended sentence or conditional release bond.32
See further: Conditional Release Orders after Conviction.
4.4 Home detention orders
Home detention is not expressly listed in s 20AB. However, home detention orders are available in the Northern Territory34 and New South Wales35 and these orders are specifically prescribed as options available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
In South Australia, home detention is only available as a condition of suspension.36
4.5 Community work orders
Community work orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(vi).
4.6 Community based orders
Community based orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(ii).
Community based orders are available in the Northern Territory39 and Western Australia40 and are specifically prescribed as options available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
4.7 Community custody orders
Community custody orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(iv).
4.8 Good behaviour orders
Good behaviour orders are listed as an available option in s 20AB(1AA)(a)(viii).
Good behaviour orders are available in the Australian Capital Territory and are specifically prescribed as an option available for federal offenders in reg 6 of the Crimes Regulations 1990 (Cth).
5. Statutory requirements when sentencing under s 20AB(1)
Where the court passes a sentence or order under s 20AB(1), the court shall explain to the person:
- the purpose and effect of the proposed sentence or order: s 20AB(2)(a);
- the consequences of breach of the order: s 20AB(2)(b); and
- that, where applicable, the proposed sentence or order may be revoked or varied: s 20AB(2)(c).
6. Distinguishing Between s 20(1)(a) and s 20AB
Care must be taken to impose orders under the correct provision. Certain sentencing alternatives may not be imposed as a condition of a recognizance release order under s 20(1)(a)(iv).
For example, in Dimech v Watts  ACTSC 221, it was held that community service cannot be imposed as a condition under s 20(1)(a)(iv) or (b). However, such sentences may be passed under s 20AB(1).
See further Conditional Release Orders after Conviction.
7. Variation and Cancellation
8. Breach of s 20AB Sentence or Order
The breach provisions in s 20AC are activated by an offender’s failure without reasonable cause or excuse to comply with the sentence or order: s 20AC(2). Section 20AC does not authorise the court to amend or revoke the order when the offender has a reasonable excuse for experiencing problems with compliance.
A court is not prevented from making an order under s 20AB(1) on the grounds that the action the court may take against a federal offender for failure to comply is, or may be, inconsistent with the action a state or territory court is empowered to take against a state or territory offender for failure to comply: s 20AB(1B).
8.1 Procedure to be followed where there is failure to comply
In Lewis v Chief Executive of the Department of Justice and Community Safety of the Australian Capital Territory  ACTSC 198, Refshauge ACJ described the procedure at :
Breach action … must be taken under s 20AC of the Crimes Act, which requires that a summons be issued by a Magistrate requiring a federal offender who is alleged to have breached a sentence so imposed to appear before the sentencing court to be dealt with by imposition of a pecuniary penalty, revocation of the sentence and the re-sentencing of the federal offender. This procedure is said to be required because the adjudication of a breach of a sentencing order involves the exercise of federal judicial power which for federal matters cannot be exercised by a non-judicial body: Australian Law Reform Commission, Same Crime, Same Time, Report No 103 (2000) at 455; [17.18], 457; [17.23]-[17.24].
8.2 Action that may be taken for failure to comply
Where an offender, without reasonable cause or excuse, fails to comply with any requirements of an order made under s 20AB, the court may:
- impose a pecuniary penalty not exceeding 10 penalty units: s 20AC(6)(a); or
- revoke the sentence and re-sentence the offender: s 20AC(6)(b); or
- take no action: s 20AC(6)(c).
The provisions governing enforcement and recovery of a pecuniary penalty imposed under s 20AC(6)(a) are the same as those which apply to fines imposed following conviction for a federal offence: s 20AC(10). See Fines.
8.3 Factors to be taken into account
- the fact that the sentence was passed or the order was made: s 20AC(7)(a); and
- anything done under the sentence or order: s 20AC(7)(b); and
- any fine, pecuniary penalty or other order made in respect of the offence: s 20AC(7)(c).
- Section 20AB applies to participating states and territories, being a state or territory with which the Governor-General has made arrangements for the carrying out or enforcement of orders made under the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth): see s 3B(2).
- Australian Law Reform Commission, Same Crime, Same Time: Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Report No 103 (2006) [7.117].
- DPP v Meyers (Unreported, Supreme Court of Victoria, Balmford J, 26 April 1996); DPP (Cth) v Ede  NSWCCA 282,  (Gleeson JA, Basten JA and Tobias AJA agreeing).
- Section 19AG(1) defines a minimum non-parole offence as ‘(a) an offence against section 24AA; (b) a terrorism offence; (c) an offence against Division 80 or 91 of the Criminal Code’. Terrorism offence is defined in s 3 of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth).
- See Crimes Legislation Amendment (Powers, Offences and Other Measures) Act 2015 (Cth) sch 7.
- Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) s 37(a).
- See further Arie Freiberg, Fox & Freiberg’s Sentencing: State and Federal Law in Victoria (3rd ed, 2014), 85 n 599, 722.
- See also Australian Law Reform Commission, Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Issues Paper No 29, (2005) [7.111].
- See Crimes (Sentencing Legislation) Amendment (Intensive Correction Orders) Act 2010 (NSW).
- Penalties and Sentences Act 1992 (Qld) ss 111-119.
- Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) s 7; Fines Act 1996 (NSW) s 89.
- Crimes (Sentencing) Act 2005 (ACT) s 11.
- Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) ss 36-48Q.
- Sentencing Act 1995 (WA) ss 68-75.
- Atanackovic v The Queen  VSCA 136,  (Weinberg, Kyrou and Kaye JJA).
- Atanackovic v The Queen  VSCA 136,  (Weinberg, Kyrou and Kaye JJA).
- Atanackovic v The Queen  VSCA 136,  (Weinberg, Kyrou and Kaye JJA).
- Fedele v The Queen  NSWCCA 286, - (Hidden J, Davies J agreeing). See also R v De Leeuw  NSWCCA 183, .
- R v Dalzell  NSWSC 454, .
- See also DPP (Cth) v Northcote  NSWCCA 26, -.
- See further Conditional Release Orders after Conviction.
- R v Leask  WASCA 243, .
- Sentencing Act 1997 (Tas) ss 27A-27Y.
- Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) ss 18X -18ZR.
- See further Government of Western Australia: Drug Court.
- See further Courts Administration Authority (SA): Treatment Intervention Court.
- See Drug Court Act 1998 (NSW).
- Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) s 5A.
- Sentencing Act 1997 (Tas) ss 28-36A.
- Penalties and Sentences Act 1992 (Qld) ss 100-108D.
- Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) s 8.
- Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act 1988 (SA) s 42(d).
- See, eg, Maier v Police  SASC 367,  (White J). But see Dimech v Watts  ACTSC 221.
- Sentencing Act 1995 (NT) ss 44–48.
- Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW) s 6.
- Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act 1988 (SA) s 38(2c).
- See R v Cook  SADC 151, .
- Sentencing Act 1995 (NT) ss 33A–39.
- Sentencing Act 1995 (NT) ss 39A-39R.
- Sentencing Act 1995 (WA) ss 61-7.
- Sentencing Act 1995 (NT) ss 48A-48Q.