List of Subheadings
- Guilty Plea
- 1. Overview
- 2. Rationale for Discounts for Guilty Pleas
- 3. Variability in Approaches
- 4. Factors Affecting Discount Awarded for Guilty Plea
- 5. Specifying the Quantum of the Discount in Sentencing Remarks
The content on this page was last reviewed on 20 January 2020.
This page is currently being subjected to further review by the CSD team due to the recent legislative amendment to s 16A(2)(g).
Related Links: Co-operation
Recent legislation alert*
Section 16A(2)(g) has been amended since 20 July 2020 to now provide that a sentencing court must take into account:
“(g) if the person has pleaded guilty to the charge in respect of the offence:
(i) that fact; and
(ii) the time of the plea; and
(iii) the degree to which that fact and the timing of the plea resulted in any benefit to the community, or any victim of, or witness to, the offence.”
*Guidance from this amendment has not yet been incorporated into the commentary
Recent cases alert
Abbas v The Queen  VSCA 80 — rejection that guilty plea ought to be given greater emphasis in terrorist offence, as weight given to plea of guilty and its utilitarian will fall to be assessed according to particular circumstances of each individual case
In sentencing a federal offender, regard should be had to any plea of guilty. Section 16A(2)(g) states:
(2) In addition to any other matters, the court must take into account such of the following matters as are relevant and known to the court:
(g) if the person has pleaded guilty to the charge in respect of the offence—that fact;
While courts are required to take guilty pleas into account when sentencing federal offenders, there is no direction in the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) as to how such a plea is to be taken into account.
Consideration of this sentencing factor may result in the court providing a ‘discount’ to the sentence. As Callaway J stated in R v Duncan  3 VR 208, 214–215:
[B]oth a plea of guilty and significant assistance to the authorities usually justify some mitigation of punishment in the exercise of the wide discretion conferred on a sentencing judge. It is referred to as a “discount” to make it clear that a sentence is never increased or made more severe because an accused person puts the Crown to its proof or declines to give such assistance (emphasis added).
The practice in Australian states and territories in relation to state and territory offences differs widely due to varying statutory schemes. 1 The New South Wales Law Reform Commission found that this can result in ‘different levels of discount being applied, an outcome that is not easy to justify to the offender or an external observer’. 2
2. Rationale for Discounts for Guilty Pleas
There is ongoing judicial discussion regarding the rationale for discounting sentences based on a plea of guilty. 3 A discount for a guilty plea will be given either on the basis of the offender’s subjective willingness to facilitate the course of justice or the objective utilitarian benefit of the guilty plea. There has been some discussion by courts about whether any difference in outcome results from the different approaches. In DPP (Cth) v Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha  FCA 876, Wigney J stated at –:
In Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Thomas  VSCA 237 at , however, the Victorian Court of Appeal disagreed with Tyler and held that the court should take into account the utilitarian benefit of a plea of guilty. It was noted, however, that in most cases, there will be little or no difference in outcome, whether the obligation in s 16A(2)(g) of the Crimes Act is expressed in objective terms (the utilitarian benefit) or subjective terms (acceptance of responsibility and a willingness to facilitate the course of justice).
This is such a case. Whether the rationale is expressed in subjective or objective terms, NYK’s plea of guilty in all the circumstances is a weighty mitigating consideration … (emphasis added).
In R v Lee  ASTSC 21,  and R v Simonetti  ACTSC 31, – Elkaim J noted that a discount of 15% applied under the subjective approach, which he indicated he was bound to follow, but that an alternative 20% discount would have applied if the utilitarian approach were permitted.
2.1 Subjective approach
In Cameron v The Queen  HCA 6, the High Court considered sentencing principles relevant to pleas of guilty in reference to the Sentencing Act 1995 (WA). Three judges of the High Court stated the rationale for taking a guilty plea into account in mitigation is based upon an offender’s subjective willingness to facilitate the court of justice not upon the utilitarian benefit of the plea. Gaudron, Gummow and Callinan JJ, at , held that the rationale:
[S]o far as it depends on factors other than remorse and acceptance of responsibility, [should] be expressed in terms of willingness to facilitate the course of justice and not on the basis that the plea has saved the community the expense of a contested hearing (emphasis added).
2.2 Objective approach
In 2012, in Cameron Kirby J, in a separate judgment, at –, maintained that the purely utilitarian interests of the public form the rationale for a sentencing discount where a plea of guilty is entered.
In Barbaro v The Queen  HCA 2 comments by the plurality indicated that utilitarian benefits do form part of the rationale for allowing a guilty plea. In the context of emphasising the role of the judge in determining the weight to be given to a plea of guilty, French CJ, Hayne, Kiefel and Bell JJ stated at :
[P]leas of guilty avoid very long and costly trials. It is again in the interests of those whom the prosecution represents to see that the utilitarian value of such pleas is suitably and publicly rewarded (emphasis added).
3. Variability in Approaches
Not all states and territories have continued to follow the reasoning of the majority judgment in Cameron when sentencing for federal offences. Some courts have adopted the practice which applies in their jurisdiction when sentencing federal offenders which may result in inconsistent practices in respect to the sentencing of federal offenders. The approaches taken in each jurisdiction are outlined below.
In New South Wales, courts have adopted the objective approach in addition to the subjective approach when sentencing for federal offences.
In Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4 the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal adopted the objective approach when sentencing for federal offences. Bathurst CJ, Beazley P, Hoeben CJ at CL, McCallum J and Bellew J in a joint judgment considered the statutory construction of s 16A(2)(g) and other underlying reasons to adopt the objective approach at –:
As we indicated, s 16A(2)(g) provides no express limitation on the manner in which a plea may be taken into account. The context in which it was passed, however, included division between courts as to whether purely objective considerations could be taken into account, but increasing recognition of the desirability of guilty pleas in the administration of justice. The context also includes the ALRC Report which, albeit by majority, recommended that a discount for the utilitarian value be afforded. It is true that Pt 1B was not modelled on the ALRC Report’s recommendations but rather the South Australian Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act 1988 (SA), but the subsection still needs to be considered in the context of the report.
There are also a number of additional factors which support the proposition that the utilitarian value of the plea can be taken into account.
First, it is important that what is required to be taken into account is the fact of the plea. The subsection, in its terms, does not direct attention to the state of mind or motivation of the offender in entering the plea. This tends against the limitation that regard can only be had to the subjective motivation of the offender.
Second, it is important to bear in mind that if the utilitarian value of the plea could not be taken into account it would leave s 16A(2)(g) with very little work to do. Contrition and remorse are factors that are separately required to be taken into account under s 16A(2)(f). The fact that the various factors in s 16A(2) will from time to time overlap, does not lessen the force of this consideration.
Third, it must be borne in mind that prior to the introduction of s 16A there was an increasing body of authority which suggested a discount could be granted even in circumstances where there was no evidence of remorse and in the face of a strong Crown case: R v Dodge; Shannon; R v Slater; Harman; R v Bulger. That approach was consistent with what was subsequently said by the High Court in Siganto. It is not to be presumed that the legislature intended to limit that approach.
Fourth, for the reasons which we have indicated in – above, we do not think that Cameron precludes that approach. In that context it should be borne in mind that in Barbaro v The Queen (2014) 253 CLR 58;  HCA 2 in the context of considering sentencing for federal offences, the plurality stated (at ) that when pleas of guilty avoid very long and costly trials, it is in the interests of those whom the prosecution represents to see the utilitarian value of such pleas is rewarded (emphasis added).
Their Honours continued at –:
In providing for the fact of a plea to be taken into account, in our opinion, the legislature intended the encouragement of guilty pleas not only to provide evidence for remorse or contrition but to assist in the administration of justice. The principle of legality should not affect the attainment of that object.
In these circumstances it is our opinion that in sentencing proceedings governed by s 16A, a sentencing judge is entitled to take the utilitarian value of a plea into account in sentencing. To the extent that Tyler and the cases which followed it provide to the contrary, they should not be followed (emphasis added).
In Victoria, courts have adopted the objective approach in addition to the subjective approach when sentencing for state and federal offences.
The Victorian Court of Appeal applied Kirby J’s approach in Cameron v The Queen  HCA 6 in Phillips v The Queen  VSCA 140. Phillips was a case involving state offences. The Court held that a discount for the utilitarian benefit of a guilty plea must always be given, except in exceptional cases.
He pleaded guilty at an early stage, and — insofar as the statutory minimum terms allow … must be credited with the resultant significant utilitarian benefit which in this case accompanies that plea: Phillips v The Queen (2012) 222 A Crim R 149.
In Victoria, when sentencing federal offenders, a guilty plea discount is given on the basis of the utilitarian benefit. 4 In DPP (Cth) v Thomas  VSCA 237 the ‘question whether a discount for the utilitarian benefit of a plea of guilty is attracted in the case of a Commonwealth offence’ was raised before the Supreme Court of Victoria, Court of Appeal. Redlich, Santamaria and McLeish JJA applied Kirby’s approach in Cameron and found at :
(a) The question whether a discount is available in respect of the utilitarian benefit of a plea of guilty to a Commonwealth offence is to be determined by reference to s 16A(2)(g) of the Crimes Act.
(b) A sentencing court must take account of the fact of the plea of guilty. Having regard to the text, context and purpose of s 16A(2)(g) of the Crimes Act, it is to be construed as meaning that a sentencing court must take into account the objective utilitarian benefit of a plea of guilty.
(c) We consider the view expressed in Tyler, that Cameron altered the nature and extent of the discount to be allowed for a plea of guilty for Commonwealth offences, to be plainly unsustainable. Intermediate appellate authority is quite divided as to how the joint reasons in Cameron are to be understood. In any event, the principle of comity does not require one appellate court to accept another appellate court’s understanding of the meaning to be given to reasons in a High Court judgment.
(d) Cameron was not concerned with a Commonwealth offence or the construction of s 16A(2)(g) of the Crimes Act. Further, there was no reference to s 16A(2)(g) in Tyler nor any consideration of whether statute governed the discount to be allowed for the fact of the plea of guilty or whether the statute could have been modified by the common law.
(e) Section 16A(2)(g) copied s 10(g) of the Criminal Law (Sentencing) Act 1988 (SA), as it originally stood. That provision and similar statutory provisions in other States require a sentencing court to take account of ‘the fact’ of the plea of guilty. Intermediate appellate courts have consistently construed the State provisions, both before and since Cameron, as meaning that a discount is to be allowed for the utilitarian benefit to the administration of justice of the plea of guilty. Given the common features of the text, purpose and context of the State and Commonwealth provisions, s 16A(2)(g) should be given the same construction.
(f) Tyler and other intermediate appellate decisions that have not allowed a discount for the utilitarian benefit of the plea of guilty for Commonwealth offences should not be followed. They are inconsistent with other appellate authority both before and since Cameron, which in our opinion has correctly allowed a discount for the utilitarian benefit of the plea for Commonwealth offences.
(g) A willingness to facilitate, or co-operate in, the course of justice is manifested by an offender’s plea of guilty. The plea, by its very nature, constitutes an acknowledgement that the charge has been rightly laid and evidences a preparedness by the offender to relinquish his or her right to contest the charges and to submit to punishment. The offender’s willingness to follow that course, often described in the authorities as ‘co-operation’, vindicates the course of justice, saves the community the expense of a trial and releases witnesses from the ordeal of a trial. These considerations provide the primary basis for the discount for a plea of guilty.
(h) As a willingness to cooperate with the course of justice is evidenced by the fact of the plea, the discount continues to be allowed regardless of the presence of motives of self-interest or the absence of remorse. Ordinarily there will be no material difference between the discount to be allowed for a willingness to facilitate the course of justice and the objective utilitarian value of that plea. However, the subjective circumstances of the offender, including his or her willingness to facilitate the course of justice, will not always have the same mitigating weight as the utilitarian benefit of avoiding a contested trial. For that reason, while statute requires a sentencing court to have regard to the fact of a plea of guilty, it is important that the utilitarian benefit be adequately reflected. We do not understand Cameron to say anything to the contrary (citations omitted).
In Tasmania, the courts have adopted the objective approach in addition to the subjective approach when sentencing for federal offences following the New South Wales position adopted in Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4. 5
In Dunning v Tasmania  TASCCA 21 Estcourt J (Marshall AJ agreeing) stated at ,  that:
The learned sentencing judge discounted the appellant’s Commonwealth sentence by 20% for what can only be seen, in my view in the context of his Honour’s comments, as a discount for the utilitarian benefit of his early plea of guilty. In Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4 at  the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal held, after a lengthy review of conflicting authorities, that in sentencing proceedings governed by s 16A of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth), a sentencing judge is entitled to take the utilitarian value of a plea into account in sentencing as the legislature intended the encouragement of guilty pleas, not only to provide evidence for remorse or contrition, but to assist in the administration of justice.
The learned sentencing judge in specifying that the effective discount he was allowing was 20%, and by commenting that the discount was to be tempered by the apparently overwhelming nature of the case against the appellant, was saying, as I apprehend it, no more than that the discount was in respect of the utilitarian benefit of the appellant’s plea of guilty, that is to say, in recognition of the assistance of the plea in the administration of justice.
In relation to state offences, Tasmanian courts have held that the rationale includes the utilitarian value of the guilty plea. 6
3.4 Western Australia
In Western Australia, the approach taken by courts is unclear.
In Bahar v The Queen  WASCA 249 it was indicated that the subjective approach from the joint judgment’s approach in Cameron v The Queen  HCA 6 applied to the sentencing for federal offences. McLure P (Martin CJ and Mazza J agreeing) stated at :
[T]he principles articulated by the High Court in Cameron v The Queen (2002) 209 CLR 339 concerning the sentencing approach to pleas of guilty and not guilty [apply to the sentencing of federal offenders]. The common law requires that an offender must not be penalised for pleading not guilty (Cameron (345)). However, at the same time a plea of guilty is accepted as a mitigating factor. The practical consequence of the fact that a plea of guilty is mitigatory is that, all other sentencing considerations being equal (which they usually never are), an offender who pleads guilty will ordinarily receive a lesser sentence than a co-offender who pleads not guilty. However, as explained by the High Court in Cameron, it is not the mere plea of guilty that produces that outcome but rather the fact that the plea supports an inference of remorse, acceptance of responsibility and a willingness to facilitate the course of justice (emphasis added).
However, courts in Western Australia have also taken into account the objective utilitarian benefit of guilty pleas. For example, in R v Combo  WASCA 34, McLure P (Newnes and Mazza JJA agreeing) noted that ‘the pleas of guilty had significant utilitarian value as they avoided a trial scheduled to take three weeks’. 7
In South Australia, the approach taken by courts is unclear. 8
The approach adopted in relation to state offences has been affected by legislative amendments in 2012 which emphasise the objective utilitarian value of a guilty plea. 9
The position in relation to federal offences in the Queensland is unclear.
In, R v Nitu  QCA 224, Fraser JA stated (Lyons J and Holmes JA agreeing) at  that:
[B]ut whether or not that is so, I respectfully observe that the application of those sentencing principles should not produce a range of sentences which involves any significant “compression” attributable to a difficulty in allowing for a discount for a plea of guilty. Matters which are “personal to the offender” and justify a discount in the sentence comprehend a plea of guilty, insofar as the plea reflects a willingness to facilitate the course of justice, remorse, and acceptance of responsibility. If the significance of a plea might be thought to extend beyond matters personal to the offender, for example if it is treated as having a purely utilitarian value which justifies a discount in the sentence, the principle expressed in Bahar v The Queen that all relevant sentencing considerations are to be taken into account in deciding whether an offence falls within the least serious category allows reference to a plea of guilty, just as it allows reference to all other relevant considerations (emphasis added).
In the Australian Capital Territory, courts have adopted the subjective approach when sentencing for federal offences.
In R v Harrington  ACTCA 10, the Court of Appeal also held the discount should be given on the basis of subjective willingness to facilitate the course of justice. Refshauge ACJ and Gilmour J stated at :
Counsel for the respondent ultimately conceded, correctly in our view, that the application of a utilitarian discount by the sentencing judge was contrary to the principles found in Cameron concerning the discount for a plea of guilty (emphasis added). 10
Their Honours continued at :
[I]n Tyler v The Queen; R v Chalmers at  the Court of Criminal Appeal in New South Wales unanimously concluded that Cameron applies in New South Wales to judges sentencing under Commonwealth law. So too is the position in the Australian Capital Territory (emphasis added). 11
Several recent cases have followed R v Harrington  ACTCA 10 but have specified the alternative discount that would have applied were the utilitarian value to have been taken into account. For example, Elkaim J in R v Lee  ASTSC 21 stated at :
[T]here is some conflict between a decision of this Court (R v Harrington  ACTCA 10; 11 ACTLR 215 (‘Harrington’)) and decisions in Victoria and New South Wales (Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) v Thomas  VSCA 237; 315 FLR 31 and Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4 respectively). In Harrington, it was said that utilitarian value should not be taken into account in arriving at a discount for a plea of guilty for a Commonwealth offence. The other two cases are to the contrary. I am bound by Harrington, to the extent that I do not think I can apply a discount in excess of 15%. But for Harrington, I would have applied a discount of 20% (emphasis added). 12
In sentencing for Commonwealth offences, a plea of guilty may be taken into account in mitigation of a sentence only where it is evidence of some remorse on the part of the offender, it indicates an acceptance of responsibility, or it shows a willingness to facilitate the course of justice: see Cameron v The Queen  HCA 6; 209 CLR 339 at –  (Gaudron, Gummow and Callinan JJ). The prosecution further submitted that in sentencing for Commonwealth offences, the Court is not permitted to reduce a sentence on account of the utilitarian value of any plea: see R v Harrington  ACTCA 10; 11 ACTLR 215 at  (Murrell CJ); at  (Refshauge ACJ and Gilmour J); cf DPP (Cth) v Thomas; DPP (Cth) v Wu  VSCA 237; Xiao v R  NSWCCA 4; 96 NSWLR 1.
In my view, a discount of 25% is appropriate in light of the offender’s willingness to facilitate the course of justice (emphasis added).
In R v Woods  ACTSC 33, Loukas-Karlsson J discussed the New South Wales and Victorian authorities for the utilitarian rationale, but stated that a 20% discount was allowed as ‘evidence of the offenders’ remorse and acceptance of responsibility’. 13 Murrell CJ in both R v Hudson  ACTSC 110 and R v Walker  ACTSC 172 suggested that the ‘controversy’ 14 of whether to allow a discount for the utilitarian value may not affect the quantity of the discount to be imposed. 15
There is some conflict between the decision of Harrington and decisions in Victoria and New South Wales (DPP (Cth) v Thomas  VSCA 237; 53 VR 546 (Thomas) and Xiao v R  NSWCCA 4; 96 NSWLR 1 (Xiao) respectively), see: R v Simonetti  ACTSC 31 at .
In Xiao at –, a five-judge bench of the NSWCCA held that s 16A(2)(g) of the Crimes Act requires a court to take into account the utilitarian value of a guilty plea when considering the fact that an offender has pleaded guilty. See also: Huang aka Liu v R  NSWCCA 70; 332 FLR 158; Naizmand v R  NSWCCA 25; Singh v R  NSWCCA 60).
I am bound by the decision in Harrington. This conflict in the authorities will need to be resolved by the Court of Appeal of the ACT (emphasis added).
In relation to territory offences, ACT Courts have held that the objective utilitarian value of a plea is the ‘dominant purpose of allowing a discount’, 16 It has been suggested that s 35 of the Crimes (Sentencing) Act 2005 (ACT) modifies the nature of the conventional utilitarian discount. 17
[I]ndicated she would apply a reduction of 50% in total from the notional seven year term, 25% due to the respondent’s willingness to facilitate the course of justice by pleading guilty and evident remorse and 25% due to co-operation with authorities. No complaint is made about the percentage of value of the reductions.
4. Factors Affecting Discount Awarded for Guilty Plea
4.1 Time plea entered
In Cameron v The Queen  HCA 6 Gaudron, Gummow and Callinan JJ, at , indicated that the issue of whether the plea was entered at the first reasonable opportunity is a significant consideration in determining the extent to which the plea is indicative of remorse, acceptance of responsibility and willingness to facilitate the course of justice.
In Miao v The Queen  NSWCCA 89, the New South Wales Court of Appeal outlined that in exceptional circumstances, delay in entering a plea of guilty may not lead to a reduction of the discount awarded. Latham J (Leeming JA and Campbell J agreeing) indicated at – that:
The judge discounted the sentences on each offence by 20% on the basis that the applicant pleaded guilty at the completion of the committal proceedings [on utilitarian basis for State offence and subjective basis for Commonwealth offences: R v Miao  NSWDC 181 at ]. The short delay in entering those pleas was occasioned by a dispute relating to [the State offence]. …
The applicant acknowledges the force of Howie J’s judgment (McClellan CJ at CL and Simpson J agreeing) in R v Borkowski  NSWCCA 102; 195 A Crim R 1, in so far as the reason for the delay is generally not relevant because the utilitarian value of a plea is the basis of the discount. However, the applicant maintains that the reason for the delay in his case was a valid one which ought to have provoked “the exercise of discretion for awarding the maximum discount where the plea of guilty [was delayed]”: Borkowski at . The further qualification to that observation by Howie J was that such a case “would be exceptional and arise from the peculiar factual situation in a particular case” (emphasis added).
Latham J (Leeming JA and Campbell J agreeing) continued at :
I am not persuaded that the circumstances relied upon by the applicant are “exceptional” or that they were “peculiar” to his case. The judge was entirely correct in observing that any dispute about the elements of one [State] offence should have had no bearing on the timing of his pleas of guilty to the other two [Commonwealth] offences. Ultimately, the discount was referrable to the sentences imposed for those two offences (emphasis added).
In the attempted drug possession case of R v Freeman  QCA 150, Applegarth J (Fraser JA agreeing) stated at – that:
The issue of whether an offender pleaded, or offered to plead, guilty at the first reasonable opportunity must be considered in the circumstances of the particular case, and is not answered simply by looking at the charges.
In some circumstances, there is a strong incentive for a person who recognises his guilt on certain counts to persist in a not guilty plea to all counts because of “the forensic prejudice that the offender would have suffered were he to have pleaded guilty to counts persisted in by the prosecution while others (that were subsequently withdrawn) remained pending against him.” In such circumstances, “it should not be assumed, mechanically, that the offender has delayed pleading guilty because of an absence of remorse, or that, reasonably speaking, he has not pleaded guilty at the earliest possible opportunity”.
Equally, a desire to maintain some possible forensic advantage does not mean that it should be assumed, mechanically, that an offender who has delayed pleading guilty until the eve of trial, and who negotiates a plea, has pleaded guilty at the earliest possible opportunity.
Forensic prejudice of the kind alluded to by Ipp J in Atholwood in pleading guilty to certain counts while the Crown persists in the prosecution of other counts that are subsequently withdrawn is only one relevant circumstance. Subsequent decisions of the Court of Appeal of Western Australia show that the observations of Ipp J have been narrowly applied. Relevant forensic prejudice should not be assumed. As McLure P observed, “relevant forensic prejudice has been difficult to establish”. The gravamen of what Ipp J said in Atholwood is that it should not be assumed, mechanically, that reasonably speaking, the offender did not plead at the earliest possible opportunity.
Relevant circumstances include whether the offender made an attempt to negotiate a plea. An explanation for delay in pleading guilty at an earlier opportunity may be that the offender was negotiating to have other charges withdrawn. No such explanation is given in this case (emphasis added; citations omitted).
4.2 Strength of Crown case
In R v Jafari  NSWCCA 152, in which the Court applied the subjective approach, Basten JA (Johnson and Davies JJ agreeing) stated at , on the extent to which a guilty plea could be considered evidence of remorse, that:
[I]n the face of an apparently incontrovertible prosecution case, one would not have expected much weight to be given to the plea by itself as an indicator of remorse.
In Lee v The Queen  NSWCCA 123, Hoeben JA (Hidden and Beech-Jones JJ agreeing) stated at :
Since the test in a Commonwealth offence is the willingness of the offender to facilitate the course of justice, a relevant consideration … is the strength of the Crown case. This is because the strength of the Crown case may bear upon the question of whether the plea of guilty was motivated by a willingness to facilitate the course of justice, or simply a recognition of the inevitable.
However, where a court is applying the utilitarian approach, the strength of the Crown case has been seen to have little relevance in determining the quantum of the discount. In the federal sentencing case of Dunning v Tasmania  TASCCA 21, Porter AJ cited a State sentencing case as authority for the proposition that the strength of the Crown case in an irrelevant factor in determining the utilitarian value of a plea of guilty. Porter AJ stated at  that:
In Sutton [ NSWCCA 225] at , the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal made it clear in no uncertain terms that the strength of the Crown case is an irrelevant factor in determining the utilitarian value of a plea of guilty: “The strength of the Crown case is relevant only to the evaluation of remorse and what weight should be given to that factor in determining the appropriate sentence.”
4.3 Where plea of guilty will carry little weight
However, a plea of guilty does not automatically translate to a reduction in sentence in all cases. As this court said in Moody v French  WASCA 67: “It is open to a court to find that, although a particular factor (such as a plea of guilty) decreases the culpability of the offender or the extent to which the offender should be punished, that factor is so outweighed by other factors that it is necessary to impose the maximum sentence because, even allowing for the mitigating effect of that factor, the offence falls within the worst category of offences of its type” .
See also, Keating v The State of Western Australia  WASCA 98  – . It is also the case that an offender may be in the lowest category of offending notwithstanding a plea of not guilty. This is simply a reflection of the fact that sentencing involves the weighing of all relevant sentencing factors some of which pull in different directions and can result in the same sentence for co-offenders, notwithstanding that one pleaded guilty and the other went to trial (emphasis added).
In Linggo v The Queen  NSWCCA 67, the plurality held that any assistance provided by the offender is not relevant to determining the discount for a plea of guilty. The plurality held at :
[The sentencing judge] erred in having regard to the fact that the applicant had not disclosed the names of those involved in the enterprise. That consideration is irrelevant to the determination of the extent to which a sentence should be mitigated for a plea of guilty. Section 16A(2)(g) is not conditioned upon an offender providing assistance. The provision of assistance to authorities is an independent consideration which falls for consideration under s 16A(2)(h).
See further: Co-operation.
Part IB does not require a court to specify the discount given for a guilty plea in sentencing remarks. 21 The practice of specifying the discount given for a guilty plea varies across jurisdictions. 22 The High Court confirmed in Markarian v The Queen  HCA 25,  that specifying the discount granted for a guilty plea does not constitute an error.
In Victoria, when sentencing for state offences, a court is required by s 6AAA of the Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) to state the sentence and non-parole period it would have imposed but for the plea of guilty. Section 6AAA has been cited and applied when sentencing for federal offences in Victoria. 23 However, no definitive view has been expressed on whether s 6AAA is capable of being picked up and applied by ss 68 and 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth).
For example, in R v Cini  VSC 409, Croucher J stated at :
There is some debate about whether s 6AAA of the Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) applies to sentencing for federal offences [see, e.g., R v Yim & Ors  VSC 325 at  per T Forrest J; R v Ramazanoglu  VSC 724 at  per Kaye J]. Rather than enter into that debate, I think the preferable course is to assume the provision is applicable and make a declaration.
Where a s 6AAA statement is made by a court, that statement cannot be used to establish a specific error in the discount applied for a guilty plea. In DPP (Cth) v Haynes  VSCA 79, Redlich, Weinberg and McLeish JJA stated at :
[I]n Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Garside, this Court repeated its earlier observation in R v Burke, that a complaint about the sentence discount can only be a complaint about the weight attributed to one particular sentencing consideration. It is now well settled that the s 6AAA statement cannot be used to establish a specific error in the discount for the plea of guilty (citations omitted) (emphasis added). 24
In Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4 the New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal discussed whether a sentencing judge was required to specify a quantifiable discount. The Court stated at – that:
There remains the question of whether it is necessary or appropriate to specify the discount given for a plea. In R v Place, where the legislation in question was in similar terms to s 16A(2)(g), the plurality stated (at -) that courts should be encouraged to identify the specific reduction given. That is consistent with what was said by Kirby J in Cameron (at [71) that it is desirable and certainly permissible to identify the measure of discount afforded for a plea of guilty. Further, McHugh J pointed out in Markarian (at ) that specification of such a discount is not inconsistent with the instinctive synthesis approach to sentencing.
Section 16A(2)(g) neither requires nor prohibits the specification of a discount. However, once it is accepted that s 16A allows a sentencing judge to give a discount to the sentence which would otherwise be imposed, it seems to us desirable that, in the interests of transparency, such discounts be specified. However, there is no obligation on the sentencing judge to do so, and a failure to do so would not of itself amount to error (emphasis added).
In South Australia, there is authority favouring the view that a sentencing judge should specify the reduction given for a plea of guilty in sentencing remarks for federal offences. 25
In the Northern Territory as well, there is authority favouring the view that a sentencing judge should specify the reduction given for a guilty plea in sentencing remarks for federal offences. 26
In Western Australia, the Supreme Court has followed Markarian v The Queen  HCA 25, holding that the discount for a guilty plea need not be specified as this was not required by the instinctive synthesis approach. 27 The Western Australian Court of Appeal held the requirement to specify the discount under s 9AA of the Sentencing Act 1995 (WA) does not apply to Commonwealth offences. 28 Buss P held in NGO v The Queen  WASCA 3 at :
Section 16A(2)(g) makes contrary provision to s 9AA. The general and unqualified provision in s 16A(2)(g), read in the context of s 16A as a whole, is inconsistent with the detailed and exhaustive provision in s 9AA. There is no room in the Commonwealth legislative scheme embodied in pt IB of the Crimes Act for the operation of s 9AA (emphasis added).
In the Australian Capital Territory, s 37 of the Crimes (Sentencing) Act 2005 (ACT) requires the Court to state the penalty it would have imposed but for the guilty plea. No statement has been made as to whether s 37 can be applied to federal offences pursuant to ss 68 and 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth). However, in practice, the Supreme Court has applied s 37 in relation to federal offences and specified the sentence that would have been imposed but for the guilty plea discount 29 or the percentage discount applied. 30
In Tasmania, the Court of Criminal Appeal has held that there is no justification for requiring a specific quantified discount in regard to a plea of guilty for federal offences. 31
- See, eg, amendments made to the Sentencing Act 1995 (WA) by the Sentencing (Amendment) Act 2012 (WA). Section 9AA was inserted, and in sub-section (2) provides: ‘If a person pleads guilty to a charge for an offence, the court may reduce the head sentence for the offence in order to recognise the benefits to the State, and to any victim of or witness to the offence, resulting from the plea.’ In Beins v The State of Western Australia (No 2)  WASCA 54,  McLure P explained the effect of s 9AA: ‘The utilitarian benefits of a plea of guilty were not directly relevant to the discount for a plea of guilty under Cameron  HCA 6. Section 9AA reversed that position.’ ↩
- New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Sentencing, Report No 139 (2013) 127 [5.35]. ↩
- See, eg, Rod Howie, ‘Sentencing Discounts: Are they Worth the Effort?’ (2008) 8(4) The Judicial Review 473 [edited version of a paper presented to the NJCA-ANU Joint Sentencing Conference, 2008, Canberra]. ↩
- DPP (Cth) v Thomas,  (Redlich, Santamaria and McLeish JJA). In other cases involving federal offences, the Courts have applied principles from Phillips. See, eg, Rodriguez v DPP (Cth)  VSCA 216, ; DPP (Cth) v Haidari  VSCA 149,  (Harper JA); Acosta v The Queen  VSCA 94, . See also HAT v The Queen  VSCA 427,  (Redlich JA, Neave JA agreeing). ↩
- Dunning v Tasmania  TASCCA 21, –. ↩
- See, eg, Pickett v Tasmania  TASCCA 1,  (Estcourt J, Porter J and Blow CJ agreeing); Ilic v Tasmania  TASSC 94,  (Tennent J, Crawford CJ agreeing); Dennison v Tasmania  TASSC 54,  (Slicer J, Crawford J agreeing). ↩
- R v Combo  WASCA 34, . See also Forsyth v The Queen  WASCA 36,  (Newnes and Mazza JJA). But see R v Host  WASCA 23 where Buss JA stated at : ‘the respondent entered pleas of guilty and, in that manner, showed contrition for his offending and facilitated the course of justice.’ ↩
- See, eg, Huynh v Commonwealth Services Delivery Agency  SASC 143,  (Peek J) where the utilitarian rationale was discussed. But see R v Constant (No 2)  SASCFC 36, ,  (Nicholson, Lovell and Hinton JJ) where the Court referred to the willingness of the offender to ‘facilitate the course of justice’ as the underlying rationale for the reduction in sentence due to the offenders plea of guilty. ↩
- See Criminal Law (Sentencing) (Guilty Pleas) Amendment Act 2012 (SA). See also R v Stavreas  SASCFC 68, – (Sulan J, Nicholson and Lovell JJ agreeing). ↩
- But see R v Harrington  ACTCA 10 at  where Murrell CJ held the ‘the uncontroversial principles in Cameron apply, without determining whether those principles are inconsistent with allowing a discount for “utilitarian value” … ’. ↩
- See also R v Arthur  ACTSC 23,  (Robinson AJ). ↩
- See also R v Simonetti  ACTSC 31, – (Elkaim J). Other Justices of the ACT Supreme Court have not used the same approach, see R v Gillett  ACTSC 30, – (Loukas-Karlsson J); see also R v McMahon  ACTSC 25,  (Mossop J). ↩
- R v Woods  ACTSC 33, . ↩
- R v Hudson  ACTSC 110,  ↩
- R v Hudson  ACTSC 110, ; R v Walker  ACTSC 172, – ↩
- R v Monaghan  ACTSC 278,  (Murrell CJ). See further Elizabeth Wren and Lorana Bartels, ‘Guilty, Your Honour’: Recent Legislative Developments on the Guilty Plea Discount and an Australian Capital Territory Case Study on its Operation’ (2014) 35 Adelaide Law Review 361. In their analysis of 300 cases in the ACT Supreme Court, they found an ‘adherence to the notion that the utilitarian value of a guilty plea is the primary rationale for the discount’. Of the 300 cases analysed, 102 made reference to the utilitarian value in a guilty plea while only 19 discussed the concept of a willingness to facilitate the course of justice: at 380–1. ↩
- See, eg, Monfries v The Queen  ACTCA 46, –. See also Chatfield v Badman  ACTSC 209 at . ↩
- See, eg, Schuelein v The Queen  NTCCA 7 (Southwood and Hiley JJ). ↩
- R v Karan  NSWCCA 53,  (Adamson J, Johnson and Harrison JJ agreeing). ↩
- Tyler v The Queen, R v Chalmers  NSWCCA 247,  (Simpson J, Harrison and Spigelman CJ agreeing); Danial v The Queen  NSWCCA 15,  (James J, McClellan CJ at CL and Barr J agreeing); Lee v The Queen  NSWCCA 123,  (Hoeben JA, Hidden and Beech-Jones JJ agreeing). ↩
- See Australian Law Reform Commission, Same Crime, Same Time: Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Report No 103 (2006) [11.7]–[11.8]. ↩
- Australian Law Reform Commission, Same Crime, Same Time: Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Report No 103 2006) [11.8]. For example, the sentencing legislation in some jurisdictions requires a judge to specify the discount. See, eg, Sentencing Act 1991 (Vic) s 6AAA; Sentencing Act 1995 (WA) s 9AA(5). ↩
- See, eg, Scerri v The Queen  VSCA 287, ; DPP (Cth) v Bui  VSCA 61, . ↩
- See also DPP (Cth) v Garside  VSCA 74, – (Redlich and Beach JJA). This position was explained in detail in the state case of R v Burke  VSCA 60. 32
5.2 New South Wales
In New South Wales, the Court has clearly distinguished the approach applicable to federal offences compared to state offences. While the state guideline judgment of R v Thomson; R v Houlton  NSWCCA 309 encouraged sentencing judges to ‘quantify’ the discount, in Lee v The Queen  NSWCCA 123, Hoeben JA (Hidden and Beech-Jones JJ agreeing) stated at :
When sentencing for a Commonwealth offence, there is no requirement for the sentencing judge to specify a quantifiable discount for an offender’s guilty plea. The principles set out in R v Thomson, R v Houlton (2000) NSWCAA 309; 49 NSWLR at , do not apply to sentencing for Commonwealth offences. 33See also AB v The Queen  NSWCCA 333,  (Schmidt J, Leeming JA and Hall J agreeing); Xiao v The Queen  NSWCCA 4 – (Bathurst CJ, Beazley P, Hoeben CJ at CL, McCallum J and Bellew JJ) where the Court stated that it is ‘desirable’ for discounts to be specified but that there ‘is no obligation on the sentencing judge to do so’. ↩
- DPP (Cth) v AB  SASC 84, ; R v Place  SASC 101, ; Dunning v Tasmania  TASCCA 21, –. ↩
- Kelly v The Queen  NTCCA 3,  (Martin CJ, Angel and Mildren JJ); Presswell v Burgoyne  NTSC 67,  (Southwood J); JKL v The Queen  NTCCA 7,  (Southwood and Martin JJ). See also Australian Law Reform Commission, Same Crime, Same Time: Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Report No 103 (2006) [11.8]. ↩
- Harding v Moreland  WASC 8, ,  (Hasluck J). ↩
- NGO v The Queen  WASCA 3, –. ↩
- See R v Philpot  ACTSC 96,  (Murrell CJ); Roncevic v Boxx  ACTSC 53,  (Penfold J); R v RJ  ACTSC 226, – (Penfold J). But see Scrivener v Papantaniou  ACTSC 41,  (Penfold J). ↩
- R v Lee  ASTSC 21,  (Elkaim J); R v Simonetti  ACTSC 31, – (Elkaim J). ↩
- Pavlic v The Queen  TASSC 96,  (Green CJ),  (Wright J); R v Stanley  TASSC 13. See also Director of Public Prosecutions v Harris  TASCCA 5. ↩